Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behaviour of earth materials, including their subsurface conditions, determination of the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties that will influence the project under consideration, and the assessment of the risks that may be created by conditions of the site. Its practical application, e.g. foundation engineering, has come to require a scientific approach. The term geotechnics is currently used to describe both the theoretical and practical application of the discipline.
Today geotechnical engineering has evolved and geosynthetics has helped to solve many conventional problems that are encountered by the engineers in the field. Geosynthetic products have a wide range of applications and are currently used in many civil and geotechnical engineering applications including roads, embankments, retaining structures, canals, landfills, bank protection, and coastal engineering.